Legislative Quota, Women Empowerment and Development: Evidence from Tanzania
Editor’s note: This post is part of a series showcasing Barcelona GSE master projects by students in the Class of 2015. The project is a required component of every master program.
Gregory Raiffa, Ericka Sánchez, Jan Stübner, Feodora Teti, and Andreas Wohlhüter
International Trade, Finance and Development
This paper analyzes whether the legislative women’s quota implemented in Tanzania has helped to reduce the existing gender gap in that country. We focus on a set of development indicators indicated by the literature and an analysis of female political activity. We exploit the variation in the number of female representatives across the 131 districts of Tanzania, employing a Difference and Differences approach including ﬁxed effects and controlling for a number of socioeconomic variables.
Our analysis indicates that the legislative women’s quota in Tanzania has led to signiﬁcant reductions in the gender gap and improvements for women. The quota has effectively increased political participation in accordance with its goals, and the level of female representation continues to rise. We find evidence that the quota has reduced the gender gap in education for certain age groups, and we ﬁnd indications of small improvements to female empowerment. In accordance with previous ﬁndings in other countries, we ﬁnd that the increased female representation has led to substantial investments in water infrastructure that has greatly increased the number of people with access to clean water. While we do not ﬁnd signiﬁcant health impacts, this may be due to limitations in our dataset.
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